• Fithra Malvarinda Universitas Muhammadiyah Palembang
  • Muhammad Arief Karim Universitas Muhammadiyah Palembang
  • Mardwita Mardwita Universitas Muhammadiyah Palembang
Keywords: biogas, cow dung, sour water, time fermentation


Liquid waste can cause environmental pollution. Therefore, industrial wastewater must be treated properly so as not to exceed the quality standard limits set by the government. One type of liquid waste is sour water from Pertamina RU III. In addition to waste problems, fossil energy reserves are increasingly depleting so that they require renewable energy reserves, one of which is biogas to produce methane gas. This research will analyze the effect of fermentation time on the quality and quantity of biogas obtained. The quantity of biogas includes the volume of gas produced, while the quality of biogas includes the content of methane gas, pH, CaCO3, total solid, and volatile solid. Biogas has 4 process stages, including hydrolysis, acidogenesis, acetogenesis, and methanogenesis. From this study it was concluded that the longer the fermentation time, the gas volume, methane content, and carbon dioxide content increased, microbial activity in this study only reached its peak phase on day 50, so it had not yet reached the decline or death phase. The hydrolysis stage took place on days 0-10, the acidogenesis stage took place on days 10-20, the acetogenesis stage took place on days 20-30, and the methanogenesis stage took place on days 30-50.


Abubakar, B. S. U. I. & Ismail, N., 2012. Anaerobic Digester of Cow Dung for Biogas Production. Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences , Februari, VII(2), pp. 169-172.

Afrian, C., Harianto, A., Hasanudin, U. & Zulkarnain, I., 2017. Produksi Biogas dari Campuran Kotoran Sapi dengan Rumput Gajah (Pennisetum Purpureum). Jurnal Teknik Pertanian, 16 Juni, 6(1), pp. 23-30.

Aliyanta, B., Sumarlin, L. O. & Mujab, A. S., 2011. Penggunaan Biokompos dalam Bioremediasi Lahan Tercemar Limbah Minyak Bumi. Valensi, November, 2(3), pp. 430-442.

Anon., 2010. Kementrian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral Republik Indonesia. [Online]

Available at:

[Diakses 11 April 2021].

Anon., 2016. 4 Jenis Limbah Berdasarkan Wujudnya. [Online]

Available at:

[Diakses 08 April 2021].

Anon., 2020. Refinery Unit III Plaju. [Online]

Available at:

[Diakses 04 April 2021].

Baredar, P., Khare, V. & Nema, S., 2020. Optimum sizing and modeling of biogas energy system. Dalam: s.l.:s.n., pp. 33-78.

Chibueze, U. et al., 2017. The Production of Biogas Using Cow Dung and Food Waste. International Journal of Materials and Chemistry, VII(2), pp. 21-24.

Ervina, 2018. Pengolahan Limbah Cair Pada Industri Dan Permasalahannya. [Online]

Available at:,

[Diakses 08 April 2021].

Gapki, 2016. Perkembangan Energi Terbarukan di Dunia. [Online]

Available at:

[Diakses 08 April 2021].ardoyo, Rosadi, D., Atmodjo, T. & Cahyono, S., 2014. Panduan Praktis Membuat Biogas Portable Skala Rumah Tangga dan Industri. Yogyakarta: Lily Publisher.

Karim, M. A., Juniar, H. & Ambarsari, M. F. P., 2017. Adsorpsi Ion Logam Fe dalam Limbah Tekstil Sintesis dengan Menggunakan Metode Batch. Distilasi, September, 02(02), pp. 68-81.

Kemenperin, 2019. Bahan Bakar Fosil Tumpuan Industri. [Online]

Available at:

[Diakses 08 April 2021].

Lopez, E. C. et al., 2017. The effect of regular or reduced-fat distillers grains withsolubles on rumen methanogenesis and the rumenbacterial community. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 123(6), pp. 1381-1395.

Miah, M. R. et al., 2016. Production of biogas from poultry litter mixed with the co-substrate cow dung. Journal of Taibah University for Science, 10(4), pp. 497-504.

Nikièma, M. et al., 2017. Optimization of Biogas Production from Organic Municipal Waste: Development of Activated Sludge as Digesters Inoculum. Journal of Environmental Protection, 29 December, Volume 8, pp. 1674-1687.

Nong, H. T. T., Unpaprom, Y., Whangchai, K. & Ramaraj, R., 2020. Sustainable valorization of water primrose with cow dung for enhanced biogas production. Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery, 02 October.

Nugraha, 2016. Outlook Energy Indonesia 2015, Jakarta: Sekretariat Jenderal Dewan Energi Nasional.

Nuryana, D., 2017. Review: Bioremediasi Pencemaran Minyak Bumi. Journal of Earth Energy Engineering, VI(2), pp. 9-13.

Pertamina RU III, 2017. Deskripsi Proses Unit SWS dan PET-SET, Palembang: Refinery Unit III Plaju.

Priadie, B., 2012. Teknik Bioremediasi Sebagai Alternatif dalam Upaya Pengendalian Pencemaran Air. Jurnal Ilmu Lingkungan, 10(1), pp. 38-48.

Salam, B., Biswas, S. & Rabbi, M. S., 2015. Biogas from Mesophilic Anaerobic Digestion of Cow Dung Using Silica Gel as Catalyst. Chittagong-4349, Bangladesh, Elsevier Ltd, pp. 652-657.

Silaban, M. W., 2019. Pertamina: 2030 Indonesia akan kehabisan Cadangan Minyak Bumi. [Online]

Available at:

[Diakses 08 April 2021].

Su, F. & Yang, Y., 2020. Microbially induced carbonate precipitation via methanogenesis pathway by a microbial consortium. 13(1), pp. 236-256.

Sukmana, Y., 2016. Minyak Indonesia Habis 12 Tahun Lagi, Krisis Mengintai Anak dan Cucu. [Online]

Available at:

[Diakses 08 April 2021].

Sun, L. & Liang, J., 2020. Thermodynamic Modeling of Gas Solubility in Aqueous Sodium. Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering.

Suwanto, Irawan, D. & Eko, 2016. Pengaruh EM4 (Effective Microorganisme) Terhadap Produksi Biogas Menggunakan Bahan Baku Kotoran Sapi. Jurnal Teknik Mesin Universitas Muhammadiyah Metro, 5(1), pp. 44-49.

Wellinger, A., Murphy, J. & Baxter, D., 2013. The Biogas Handbook: Science, Production, and Application. Sawston: Woodhead Publishing.

Yahya, H., 2019. Analisis Kadar Air dan Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) dari Proses Bioremediasi Limbah Oli dengan Metode Pengomposan. Serambi Engineering, Januari, IV(1), pp. 372-375.

Yuan, T. et al., 2021. A review on biogas upgrading in anaerobic digestion systems treating organic solids and wastewaters via biogas recirculation. Bioresource Technology, Issue 344, p. 126412.

How to Cite
Malvarinda, F., Karim, M. A., & Mardwita, M. (2023). THE EFFECT OF FERMENTATION TIME TO BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM COW DUNG AND SOUR WATER. OISAA Journal of Indonesia Emas, 6(1), 20-32.